Isr J Med Sci 23:485C489

Isr J Med Sci 23:485C489. of late mycoplasma pathology in susceptible mice. Neutralizing IL-17A did not further reduce disease during infection in BALB/c mice depleted of neutrophils, suggesting that IL-17A requires the presence of pulmonary neutrophils to worsen respiratory pathology. IL-17A is a pathological element of murine respiratory mycoplasma infection. Using monoclonal Fosdagrocorat antibodies to neutralize IL-17A could reduce disease severity during mycoplasma infection in humans and domesticated animals. is a significant cause of pneumonia, and infection exacerbates other respiratory conditions (i.e., asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) (5, 6). Severe infection can be fatal when secondary complications Fosdagrocorat (i.e., anemia or encephalitis) arise (7, 8). The worldwide increase in antibiotic-resistant mycoplasmas is a danger to public health (9,C11). Novel therapies are needed to improve resistance to mycoplasmas and reduce host damage during infection. Mycoplasmas have many virulence factors that establish infection and damage neighboring epithelium (12,C14). However, host immunity exacerbates disease pathology, and so, the immune response against mycoplasmas also impacts the outcome of infection (15,C17). Not every immunologic response that protects or damages the host during respiratory mycoplasma infection is completely understood. This blocks the development of fully effective vaccines and therapeutic strategies that prevent and treat mycoplasma infection (11, 18). Infecting mice with display reduced inflammatory damage (22, 23). The depletion of CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells reduces disease severity in susceptible (i.e., BALB/c) mice and confirms that T cells dictate the outcome of infection (24). Different CD4+ T helper (Th) subsets promote contrasting responses during mycoplasma infection (25, 26). In fact, Th2 responses contribute to pathology while Th1 responses promote mycoplasma resistance (27). Current Fosdagrocorat knowledge of how different T-cell populations contribute to host protection and pathology has already produced partially effective mycoplasma vaccines for animals (28, 29). Continuing to improve our understanding of how different T cells and their cytokines impact disease outcome is critical for developing fully effective therapies that prevent and combat mycoplasma infection. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and Th17 cells increase in children infected with (30, 31), but how IL-17A impacts the immune response to mycoplasma infection is not completely understood. IL-17A is the chief cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, activating immune pathways involved in infection and disease (32,C34). IL-17A enhances host defense during infection by binding to nonhematopoietic cells and inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides (i.e., -defensins and S100 proteins) (35). Blocking IL-17A revealed its role in neutrophil-mediated protection during bacterial and fungal infections (36, 37). However, IL-17A activates metalloproteinases and damaging inflammatory cascades (38, 39). IL-17 production can be initiated soon after infection with and is dependent upon IL-23 production (40), indicating a potential role in the innate immune response. neutralization of IL-23 also resulted in a concomitant reduction in neutrophil recruitment. However, adaptive immune responses may also contribute to IL-17 production, as mice immunized with extract have increased IL-17 and other inflammatory cytokines in the lung after intratracheal inoculation of the extract (41). It appears that IL-17A secretion can be associated with either innate or adaptive host responses and may contribute to the inflammatory lesions of severe respiratory mycoplasma infection. However, GNG7 mycoplasma diseases are multifactorial, and how IL-17A impacts disease outcome could depend upon the genetic background of the host. In disease, mouse strains can differ in susceptibility or resistance to infection and disease Fosdagrocorat (42), and IL-17A may have different impacts upon mycoplasma diseases depending upon the mouse strain. C57BL/6 mice naturally resist infection Fosdagrocorat (43), but susceptibility to disease increases in IL-17RA?/? C57BL/6 mice (44). Other IL-17A homologs.