The method commonly used in serologic surveillance programs for AI is a test that detects antibodies directed against the cross-reactive nucleoprotein antigen shared by all influenza A viruses (OIE, 2012). that influenza A virus antibody prevalence was 12.8% and 9.3% for breeders and layers, respectively while HI assay revealed 22.0%, 2.0% and 78.0% prevalence of LPAIV H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 antibodies Brigatinib (AP26113) respectively. All cloacal swab suspensions were negative for AIV RNA. Conclusion: Since LPAI infections result in decreased or complete cessation of egg production in breeder and layer birds, increased infection severity due to co-infection with other poultry viruses have occasionally been transmitted to humans, the detection of LPAIV H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 antibodies in these birds is of both economic and public health significance. These findings underscore the need for continuous flock monitoring as part of early warning measure to facilitate rapid detection and sustainable control of AI in Nigerian poultry. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Low pathogenic avian influenza, Surveillance, Antibodies, Breeders, Layers Introduction Avian influenza viruses (AIV) continue to be a global problem because they are potential highly infectious, can rapidly spread and cause disease in domestic poultry, and some viruses may also infect other animal hosts, including humans (Feare, 2007). Globally, an enormous number of poultry have died from direct infection with AIV, and countless numbers of poultry flocks at risk have been depopulated as a measure to contain the virus and prevent its further spread (Feare, 2007). Apart from the severe economic losses it causes in commercial poultry, AIV can evolve rapidly and spillover into other species (Perdue and Swayne, 2005; Van Brigatinib (AP26113) Reeth, 2007). In addition, high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic poultry are thought to have evolved from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses through mutations or re-combinations (Alexander, 2007). According to Swayne em et al /em . (2011), LPAI is a reportable disease caused by H5, H7 and H9 subtype viruses that have become a major source of concern to the global poultry industry. Most LPAI viruses (LPAIVs) produce mild to moderate disease in commercial rearing settings, especially when complicated by secondary pathogens, immunosuppression, and stress factors in the environment. Drops in egg production have also been observed in chicken breeders and layers infected with these viruses (Lu em et al. /em , 2004; Pillai em et al. /em , 2009). Furthermore, outbreaks of HPAI that resulted from circulating LPAI H5, H7 and H9 viruses have been reported in poultry worldwide (Iqbal em et al. /em , 2009; Snoeck em et al. /em , 2011). Additionally, their transmission to humans has been described and this highlights their potential to cause zoonotic disease (Capua and Alexander, 2007a; Wang em et al. /em , 2009). Highly pathogenic avian influenza has extended from Asia to Europe and Africa since 2003, leading to the death or mass slaughter of millions of birds and significant economic losses. For instance, the 2003 outbreak of HPAI (H7N7 subtype) in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany led to the destruction of over 33 million birds with the total cost estimated at 750 million while a 2004 outbreak of AI due to H7N3 subtype in Canada resulted in the destruction of 14 million Brigatinib (AP26113) birds and a loss of more than RTKN $300 million (Lupiani and Reddy, 2009). These outbreaks which also resulted in transmission of the virus to occupationally exposed people highlight the significance of global surveillance for AIV infections in the natural hosts. The method commonly used in serologic surveillance programs for AI is a test that detects antibodies directed against the cross-reactive nucleoprotein antigen shared by all influenza A viruses (OIE, 2012). In Nigeria where AI vaccine is not currently administered to poultry and where epidemiological and virological data are sparse, the benefits of surveillance may include estimation of the value of influenza prevention through demonstration of the local disease burden associated with influenza. In this way, surveillance can also help establish the epidemiological characteristics of influenza within the country which would inform the development of effective and sustainable prevention strategies (Breese, 2010). Hence, in Nigeria with a poultry population of about 170 million.